Livanios is a Hellenic philosopher born in the Hellenic city Antiocheia of Syria in 314 a.C. His family was local and...
When I was a member of groups in Facebook related to the Goddess Hekate I noticed many Historical inaccuracies being spread by members. It wasn't their mistake at all. I couldn't expect someone who is not Hellene to read and understand the ancient Hellenic History from the sources. Here in Hellas, we are taught Hellenic History in elementary school, gymnasium and lyceum. At each educational grade, we learn the same things with more details and in the last two years of the lyceum, we gave panhellenic examinations to pass the university. History exams contained a lot of critical thought and abilities of analysis from the sources. Things are very different now because politicians have underestimated the importance of History and national identity. The politicians after the revolution of the army in 1967-1973 are heavily influenced by the new ideology of communism, which is opposite with the ancient, the byzantine and the modern spirit of Hellas, that's why they had to fight it by putting it in silence mode. This betrayal of the Hellenic spirit was encountered by publishing houses which printed the ancient Hellenic texts in relatively low prices and by modern teachers and professors who wrote historical books and studies on the ancient, medieval and modern History of Hellas.
Modern politicians of Hellas make a lot of mistakes regarding the national interests of our country. Many people believe that they do what the foreigners tell them to do, thus they are puppets of the foreign countries. Most political parties are corrupted from their base. The same situation as before the arrival of Ioannes Kapodistrias in 1827, where the political parties were the French, the English and the Russian, in Hellas! Now we have the American and the German influence in national politics. Too odd that the same cast of people denies learning from the mistakes of the past. Not too odd really, because many politicians have studied in England and in America, so they don't carry within them the Hellenic education, the Hellenic Letters as we say in Hellas. So, it was not a surprise for us to see the Macedonian Issue being present from the 19th century till the 21st century and no-one doing anything about it, except the professors, the military and everyday people who vote. Before explaining what is the Macedonic/Macedonian Issue we will have a short History lesson.
Macedonia is a part of Hellas from the Prehistoric Era even from the Paleolithic Period. The Hellenic character of the area was never questioned in the ancient, medieval, renaissance and modern texts until the 19th century. Even the enemies of Hellas didn't put the matter on the table, because it didn't exist.
Macedonians are Aioleis, thus part from one of the main three Hellenic tribes. In Mythology, Macedonas is the son of Lycaonas from Arcadia. According to Hesiod, Macedonas is the son of Zeus and Thyia, daughter of Deucalionas. Macedonians lived in Pindos and later on, they moved to the flat area which took their name.
The word Makedon is also Hellenic and we see it in Homer with the epithet makednos meaning the tall and slim. The same word shares the same root with other Hellenic words like mekos (length) and makros (distance), related to its meaning.
The ancient presence of human (Homo Erectus) in Hellas was discovered in the Petralona Cave from anthropologist Ares Poulianos, dated around 700.000 b.C. The oldest settlement in Macedonia was found in Nikomedia dating in 6000 b.C. The oldest lake settlement was found in Dispelio dating around the same time with the first writing sample being present in the same place at 5260 b.C.The same area gives the oldest musical instrument in Europe, the bone recorder. Next to Philippi, we see the first appearance of grape cultivation in Europe and the connection of Macedonia with the cult of Dionysos, meaning the presence of religion far before the religion of Orpheus. At the Bronze Period, Macedonia presents human inhabitation and findings. The Mycenaean Civilization was spread in Macedonia and we find that from the pottery, the graves and the presence of Linear B writing, all Hellenic. At the end of the Mycenaean Civilization, the Hellenic tribes started to move and relocate. So, the Dorieis of Macedonia (maybe from Pindos) went to Sparta etc. Those tribal relocations passed through Macedonia. Macedonians believed that they came from Argos of Peloponesse, so their relocation to Peloponesses was a return for some of them. According to Thucydides, Macedonians came from Argos to their modern area and they were Temenides, something that we also see from Alexander the Great and the initial cult of Hercules (who was also an Argean). Hercules was worshipped as Patroos in Macedonia, meaning the father, one of the main initial Gods.
In the 7th century b.C. the first king of Macedonia is Perdikkas. During his time we see the royal emblem the sun of Vergina (see the coin), which is a symbol of power from the 12 Gods of Olympus and the 4 elements. Perdikkas appears as a descendant of Temenides from Argos. At that time the Second Colonization happened, where the Hellenes expanded to Italy, Africa, Asia and northern Hellas. We see colonies of Athenians, Corinthians, Parians, Andrians and Eretrians in Macedonia. The next king id Amyntas the first and then Alexander the first. During his time, Macedonia was an ally of Persia and even the Persians recognised Macedonians as Iones, meaning a Hellenic tribe. Alexander came to Athens to give information on the Persian strategic and he participated in the Olympic Games. This leaves no doubt about the Hellenism of Macedonia. Even so, we read in Herodotus that Alexander said to the Athenians "my genre is Hellenic". At that point, I have to write that many other Macedonians participated in the Panhellenic games, contests and athletic celebrations all over Hellas. When the Hellenes defeated the massive army of the Persian Empire in Plataies and Mycale, the leftovers of Mardonio's and Xerxes army were hunted by the Macedonians. The son of Alexander the first, Perdikkas the second will be the next ruler and after him, Archelaos. He was something like Pericles in Athens. Macedonia was decorated, celebrations were established in the ancient sanctuary in Dion, for Zeus and even Euripides came to live his last years in the palace, as a guest of Archelaos. After the death of Archelaos, Illyrioi invaded Macedonia and conquered Pella. The brother of Perdikkas the third, Philip took the situation is his hands and he organized Macedonia to the greatest city that existed in Europe at that time. Not only he fought all the enemies, but he also organized the state, the army, the economy and the education. He gathered the best of the Hellenes from the cities he visited and then he invited Aristotle to teach them. Those were the generals of Alexander the second. Macedonia and Thrace were one city at that time.
As we saw, Philip united Thrace with Macedonia and that meant that he had to conquer all the colonies of the Athenians and Corinthians, something that wasn't very pleasant for them. In Athens, we see two sides. The philippic side with Isocrates and the non-philippic side with Demosthenes. Isocrates invited Philip to unite the Hellenes and conquer the Persian Empire, while Demosthenes mocked Philip and called Alexander as a boy and an idiot. This lead to the battle of Charonia, where Philip won the Athenians and the Thebes and in the conference of Corinth he was elected as a general against the Persian campaign. The dreams of Isocrates came true with his son, Alexander, because Philp was murdered by his political enemies.
Let's take a short look at the facts. The Macedonic dialect was a Hellenic dialect with elements from the doric, the ionic and the attic dialects. During the Roman period, we see that it was used to explain some Homeric verses, as it was considered to be an ancient dialect. The religion of the Macedonians is the Hellenic religion. We find the cult of Artemis, Aphrodite, Rhea, Hercules, Pan, Asclepios, Demeter, Zeus, Dionyssos and Athena. The symbols they used were Hellenic like the sphinx, the griffon, the lions, scenes from the Iliad, deer hunting etc. The weapons of Philip were decorated with Athena and scenes with Achilleas and the battle of Troy. The Macedonian graves continue their Hellenic tradition, as well as the buildings. The coins of Macedonia were all Hellenic coins and only the Hellenic alphabet appears in the area. In the image of the page, you see the coin of Alexander with the Goddess Athena in the other side. The Hellenic identity of Macedonia is seen in Geographica of Strabon, where we read "Macedonia is Hellas" and in the maps of Claudios Ptolemaios at his work Geographic Yphigisis, where Macedonia is a part of Hellas.
Alexander the Great was raised by his Cynical teacher Leonidas and his Peripatetic teacher Aristotle. He carried the influences of his father for war, sports, win and battle and from his mother the mystical character. Both his parents were initiates of the Kabeirian mysteries and Alexander had special abilities in the metaphysics. His favourite reading was the Iliad with the commentaries of Aristotle. His favourite hero was Achilleas. As a young boy, he fought against the Tribbaloi, the savage tribes of Thrace, the Getoi and lastly against Illyrioi. So, he destroyed the barbarians around Macedonia.
He started the campaign of his father with 30.000 soldiers 5000 horsemen and 160 ships to conquer an army of 1 million soldiers and he did it. In the battle of Granicos river he defeated the satraps of Asia. He also fought fiercely the Hellenes who were paid by the Persians to be a part of their army. The ones who lived the battle were sent to work as slaves in the villages of Macedonia. Arrianos writes that those Hellenes dared to fight with the barbarians and not with their own. Alexander sent 300 shields to the Acropolis of Athens with the writing "Alexander of Philip and the Hellenes, without the Lacedaemonians, from all the barbarians who lived in the Asia". The next battle in Issos he slaughters the Persian army during the time of their retreat. He conquered all the cities of Persian Empire without resistance, like Phoenice, Tyros, Palestine, Egypt. In the battle of Gaugamela or Arvylla he defeats completely the Persian army. Babylon, Sousa, Persepolis, Bactriane, Sogdiane, Pentapotamia follow and he stops his world conquer because the soldiers were too tired. The next step was the government of this empire.
Alexander promoted the Hellenic science, philosophy, art and language to Asia to a point that all the known world spoke and understood the Hellenic language. He set the base of the Hellenistic Empire and kingdoms and later the Byzantine Empire and the spread of Christianity. He also promoted freedom to all the nations he conquered and he believed to a new world with the Hellenic element being at the heart or centre. That's why during the Hellenistic Period, where his generals continue his vision, new philosophical schools, new magickal schools, new scientific discoveries to come up and create a better world with elements from different civilizations.
The Roman Period follows then the Byzantine Period. Macedonia remains a strong city of Hellas. There is even the dynasty of Macedonians in the Byzantine Empire. During the 5th and 6th century, the Mongols of Asia had the necessity to move to other areas because of the increase of their populations. The slavic tribes passed from the Eyxenos Pontos to Europe and some of them came to Hellas, others to central Europe and others to northern Europe. The main God of Slavic religion is Peroun, the God of thunder. They didn't have an alphabet, yet the Byzantine Empire wanted to absorb them and make them allies. So, the Christian church sent two monks to teach them Christianity. This was a standard politic for the Byzantines and the Romans. But, they didn't have an alphabet. Those monks, Kyrillos and Methodios create an alphabet for them, the one that they still use. This happened in the 9th century and the Slavs came to Hellas around the 6th and 7th century a.C. The Christianization of the Slavs completed in the 12th century a.C. The Slavs didn't behave well, and this caused big problems for the Byzantines, who had to kill most of them and limit them. Hellas banished the Slavs from her territory while many of them stayed and absorbed by the Hellenic tribe.
As we see, the language, the history, the religion and the art (the Slavs hadn't discovered pottery with the wheel) of the Slavs had nothing to do with the ancient, Hellenistic and Byzantine Macedonia. Croatians, Pollands, Checks, Ukraines, Slovans, Bosnians, Bulgars etc. are Slavs, but they don't support that they are Macedonians. Nowadays, we see that the state of FYROM supports that ancient Macedonia was their past, that they are Macedonians, Alexander and Philip, Aristotle etc. were their ancestors, which is ridiculous. How did this happened? This state, FYROM, is composed of Slavs, Bulgars, Albanians, Roma, Hellenes. It is not a nation, yet their politicians starting from the communist Tito till mr. Zaef they support that they are ancient Macedonians who speak and write the ancient macedonian language. This could be possible only if Macedonia was a city in central Asia and the Byzantine Monks knew that language and its alphabet. Don't get me wrong that I hate the Slavs. All I say is that the Slavs are a different nation from the Hellenic, they came from Asia and they spread to Europe and they had nothing to do with Perikkas, Archelaos, Philippos, Alexander, Aristotle, Kassandros and others.
The Slavic nations of the south were slaves of the Turkish empire as well as the Hellenes. When the Hellenes fought and won the Turks in the battlefields of Hellas at the revolution of 1821, Hellas was a much smaller place than it was in antiquity, because its territories were conquered by invader nations like the Slavs and the Turks. This doesn't change the owner of those areas, who remains the same. At the end of the 19th century, Macedonia is an area that many nations wanted to conquer, besides the Hellenes. Bulgars, Albanians, Romans wanted new territories for their nations and the geopolitical power of Macedonia as it is a crossroads between east and west, north and south. At that time, those nations develop bad nationalism which was caused by foreign big countries who wanted to control Macedonia. So, England, France, Italy, Austria and Turkey wanted to control this crossroads. So, they put different nations to fight each other and then, they would come and take the prize. The socialists of that time wanted an independent Macedonia, which is quite illogical because people who lived there were mainly Hellenes. The common enemy of the small nations was Turkey and instead of forming an alliance to fight against Turkey, they were influenced by the foreigners to fight among themselves.
Bulgars invaded and conquered Macedonia. The Hellenes politicians were completely unprepared for that, despite their propaganda. And as we will see, they still are. In Macedonia, we find two sides from the Bulgars. The one that wanted a big Macedonia and the independent side. The came up with a plan to add the Slavs and the Hellenes and create the Hli-Den, a plan that didn't last.
Hellas started the reactions by sending military officers and then soldiers to defend and re-conquer Macedonia. It was a fierce and cruel struggle between humanity and inhumanity. Even a Bulgar bishop declared that when they Bulgars kill a Hellene, is not a sin. The fights saved Macedonia from becoming a Bulgarian area. In 1912 there was peace because the neo-turks had appeared and so the Balkan nations had a new enemy to fight. Hellas, Serbia, Bulgaria agreed that each nation that would conquer Turkish territories they would keep it from itself. It was a speed fight to save Macedonia from the Bulgars and the Turks and the Hellenes won all the battles. Till the end of the First Balkan War Hellas becomes twice as big with the islands of the Aegean, Epiros and West Macedonia. The Eastern side was Bulgarian.
The Second Balkan War starts because the Bulgarians invaded Thessalonike to conquer the western part of Macedonia. The Hellenes won the battles and west Macedonia and Thrace return to Hellas. 9/10 of ancient Macedonia is now Hellenic again. Note that the 1/10th is the south part of FYROM and at that place till 1960 it was inhabited by Hellenes. So, if there is someone who has to take something isn't the Slavs and the Albanians of the FYROM but the Hellenes from the FYROM. Yet, they have that 1/10 part of ancient Macedonia and they claim to be the ancestors of ancient Hellenes. The south part was inhabited by the Hellenes until recently after 1960 if I am not mistaken. I think that there is no need for further explanation. The Bulgars do not support that FYROM is ancient Macedonia and they deny strongly that the language of FYROM is the ancient Macedonic dialect, because it is the Bulgarian language with some new modifications from the Servian language that incorporated by Tito. The alphabet of FYROM isn't the ancient Hellenic, but the Cyrillic alphabet.
The Hellenic politicians from the 20th century till the 21st century did nothing to claim that 1/10 part of FYROM and when the Serbians suggested sharing FYROM with us, we denied. When the FYROM did propaganda from the 1963 where they printed cigarettes with the name Macedonia and later in 1990 when they wrote books with inaccurate translations of ancient sources and presenting themselves as ancient tribes, the Hellenic state did nothing to reply and stop that theatre of illogical texts. Their propaganda passed because they worked well at the same time where they Hellenic Ministry of Culture did nothing. The politicians, the diplomats and the professors believed that those claims need isolation and didn't deserve a response, yet in 2019 the left government agreed with FYROM to give for free the name North Macedonia, despite their historical claims and nationalism against the Hellenes. The Hellenes protested in Athens, Thessaloniki and other cities by hundreds of thousands, yelling against the politicians who they called traitors. And it is true that this left government was not elected to serve the politics of foreign countries who pressed Hellas to accept the name Macedonia for the northern neighbours, because they had to put FYROM in the EU with a new name... The left government was elected because they supported to do some economic relief laws, not to give away Hellenic history, ground and change the power of Hellas. People asked for a referendum, but in Hellas, more referendums were done by the military revolution of 1967 than the democrats after that. No-one wanted to give away the History, the language, the reality and the bones of the dead to FYROM. Yet, the politicians don't have many patriotic feelings and they defied the view of the Hellenes who live abroad as they defied the professors of geopolitics, language, history and as they defied the whole nation.
The deal between the two countries was signed in Prespes at Hellas, despite the protests against it at Prespes. The police had to attack with chemicals more than one million people and save the parliament from violations. Hellenes travelled to participate in the protests with any cost and they were continuously angry. The agreement is about the geographical assessment and not about language or nationality. FYROM should be officially called North Macedonia and not Macedonia, as Macedonia is a part of Hellas. Yet it is widely known that when you give your name to another country who wants your cities and your history, the next step is to ask for your ground. And, quite frankly, after they had written hundreds of books claiming to be the descendants of Aristotle and Alexander, who is gonna change their texts and republish them, because of this agreement? Who is the winner here? Logic and reality surely aren't. Much shame for the European Civilization and to those who let the science to be formed by the politicians.
Theurgy and Philosophy are two different methods which lead to the union with God.